オキナクサハツ (翁臭初)

Russula senecis S. Imai, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Hokkaido Imperial University, 43: 344, 1938

Russule sénile, オキナクサハツ (Russule fétide du vieillard)



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  • Basidiomycota / Homobasidiomycetes / Russulales / Russulaceae
  • Synonymes :
    R. subfoetens ss. Matsuura 1933;
    ? R. punctipes Singer 1935
    ? R. illota Romagn. ss. Singer 1975, 1986
    Russula "senis" dixit Romagn. 1989;

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Russula_senis_PRB_0758Gregaria vel solitaria. Pileo 4-10 cm. vel ultra lato, subgloboso, dein convexo, demum plano centro depresso, udo viscido, apelliculoso, primo "ochraceous-tawny", dein "ochraceous-buff" vel "antimony-yellow", cum ruga "ochraceous-tawny-" vel "mars-brown-" colorata, margine primo astriato demum leviter striatulato; carne alba, fragile, crassiuscula, sapore acrissimo, odore valido; lamellis adnatis vel leviter decurrentibus, subaequalibus, subconfertis, albis, acie atrobrunneis; stipite 5-10 cm longo, 9-15 mm crasso, aequali, flavidulo vel albido, atrobrunneo-punctato, e farcto cavo; sporis in cumulo albidis, globosis, echinulatis, 8 µ in diam.


は径5~10cm、まんじょう形から平らに開き、中央部は窪む。表面は黄土褐色〜汚黄土色でいちじるしいしわがあり、周辺部には放射状の溝線がある。
ひだ
はほとんど離生し、やや密で黄白色、幅0.8〜1cm、縁部は褐色黒褐色にふちどられる。
柄 5〜10 ×1〜1.5cm、円柱形〜下にやや太く中空、表面は汚黄色をおび、褐色~黒褐色の細点がある。
肉 汚白色、多少臭気があり, 味はきわめて辛い。
胞子は径7.5~9μm、球 形、表面には大小のとげと翼状の隆起がそなえている。

夏~秋、林内の地上、特 にシイ・コナラなどブナ科の木の付近に発生。東アジア・ニュ-ギニア。有毒。

クサハツとの違い:茎が汚白色細点があるのがクサハツ、茎に褐色~黒褐色の細点がある のがオキナクサハツである。 胞子はクサハツモドキ に似て大小のトゲと翼状の隆起があるらしい。

「学名 russus 赤い、(髪の毛が)焦茶色の/senecio 老人/seneca 年寄り/seneo 老いている=senis

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Chapeau : 5-10 cm, brun jaunâtre, fauve roussâtre à ocre sale, Revêtement fortement ridé, parfois presque cérébriforme, et plus ou moins strié radialement à la périphérie, cutis souvent rompu-fendillé à lacéré par temps sec et laissant alors apparaître la chair jaune sale. Brun rougeâtre au centre qui est lubrifié et souvent imbu, mais granulé-chagriné sous la loupe.

Lames :sublibres, assez serrées à (6/cm à un cm de la marge), assez épaisses, larges de 0,6-1 cm, blanc jaunâtre à beige sordide, tachées de brun rouge ça et là, arête érodée, brun rouille sombre. Reflet vineux-purpurin des taches selon l'incidence.

Stipe ::5-10 x 1-1,5 cm, subcylindrique, souvent épaissi et courbé à la base, caverneux puis creux, jaune sale, plus ou moins roussâtre par détersio

Odeur faible, saveur âcre à très âcre. FeSO4 brun et lent sur le stipe. Gaïac vert bleu sombre très rapide (moins de 5 secondes). R56 sur lame entière début en 10 sec, diffuse 20 sec mais longtemps limité à la périphérie, ne termine avant 10 minutes,

Couleur de la sporée : Leucosporée

Spores globuleuses, 7-5-9 µm, remarquablement ailées de fortes crêtes peu connexées. Sporée blanche.

Biotope : Sous feuillus
Description :Grégaire et commune en été-automne en forêts à Castanopsis, Quercus etc., rarement sous conifères. Japon, Nouvelle-Guinée (Hongo 1973), Extrême-orient russe( ? Vassilieva 1973), Corée du Sud (Hongo 1976), Chine (1979).

Toxique
Références bibliographiques IH1 587

Rappelle R. illota Romagn. mais diffère par le revêtement piléique ridé, et l'ornementation sporale fortement ailée.

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Russula_senis_1989_1009e

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Prospecting Russula senecis: a delicacy among the tribes of West Bengal

Russula senecis, a worldwide distributed mushroom (!), is exclusively popular among the tribal communities of West Bengal for food purposes. The present study focuses on its reliable taxonomic identification through macro- and micro-morphological features, DNA barcoding, confirmation of its systematic placement by phylogenetic analyses, myco-chemicals and functional activities.

 Russula senecis Sanshi Imai
Pileus 5.5–7(–13) cm broad, convex when young, becoming plano-convex to applanate at old, usually with broad central depression, glabrous, slightly viscid when wet,hygrophanous, bay, pale ochraceous buff to ochraceous-tawny towards centre, pallid to ochraceous buff towards margin, surface turns translucent rust to rusty-tawny with KOH; margin decurved, tuberculate striate; cuticle not easily separable fromthe context, cracking
up into patches near margin; context up to 3.5 mm thick, creamy buff, unchanging color when exposed (Figs. 1A–1B).

Lamellae 4.5–6 mm broad, adnexed, regular, bifurcate near the attachment of stipe, rarely one tiered, creamy buff, entire, even, edge discolorous,
with fine brown to sienna buff margin.

Stipe 5.5–7.5(–14) × 1.1–1.3(–2.4) cm towards top × 1.2–2.5 cm towards base, tapered towards the base, central to slightly eccentric, fleshy, slightly curved, cylindrical, becoming compressed, multi chambered at maturity; surface smooth, moist, slight shiny, creamy buff to dull yellow, often with fine dark brown warts, becoming clay buff on bruising, turns rusty-tawny to bay with KOH (Fig. 2A).

Odor strong. Taste very acrid. Sporeprint creamy white.

Basidiospores (7.5–)8.2–8.6–8.9(–9.7) × 7.8–8.3–8.6 μm, Q= 0.95–1.04–1.18, globose to subglobose, ornamentation amyloid, up to 2.1–3.2 μm high, composed of large wings and isolated warts, never forming reticulum (Figs. 1C and 1D; 2B). Basidium 32–38 × 10–10.7 μm, clavate, 4–spored (Fig. 2C). Hymenialcystidia (61–)64–68(–82) × 8.6–9.7(–10.7) μm, lanceolate to fusoid or elongated fusoid, with mucronate to moniliformapex, thin-walled, mostly with heteromorphous contents (Fig. 2D). Lamellar trama ca. 143–150 μm broad towards middle, 96 μm broad towards edge, mainly composed of sphaerocytes. Subhymenium pseudoparenchymatous.

Pileipellis orthochromatic in cresyl blue, sharply delimited from underlying sphaerocytes of the context, distinctly divided  into a dense, gelatinized, ca. 143–157(–161) μm deep subpellis composed of horizontally oriented hyphae, 3.2–3.6(–4.3) μm wide, mostly scattered with oleiferous fragments, (5.7–)6.4–7.2(–8.6) μm wide, and a less gelatinized, 36–72(–89) μm deep suprapellis of erect or repent hyphal ends. Incrustations absent. Pileocystidia up to 4.3–7.2 μm broad, mostly lanceolate, apex cylindrical to often with a minute rounded capitulum, thin-walled,
recognizable by their distinct heteromorphous contents (Fig. 2E). Underlying sphaerocytes globose to sub-globose, ca. 12.5–13.9(–14.3) × 13.6–14.3 μm, hyaline. Stipitipellis up to 107–143 μm thick, composed of 3.6–3.9 μm broad hyphae, frequently with interspersed
oleiferous hyphae, measuring 5.7–8.9 μm broad. Caulocystidia absent. Stipe trama composed of nested subglobose sphaerocytes, measuring 21–36(–44) μmdiam.

Habit and habitat: common, ectomycorrhizal with Shorea robusta C.F.Gaertn. and Castanopsis sp.

Specimen examined: INDIA:West Bengal, Burdwan district,Malandighi, 11 July 2008, Prakash Pradhan, CUH AM103; Burdwan district, Malandighi, 25 August 2008, Prakash Pradhan, CUH AM104; Bankura district, Bishnupur, 10 August 2009, Prakash Pradhan,
CUH AM105; Bankura district,Manjhulia, 15 July 2010, Prakash Pradhan, CUH AM106