Podostroma cornu-damae (Pat.) Hongo & Izawa 1994

Cornes de daim rutilantes, Champignon flamboyant (カエンタケ)

Podostroma cornu-damae Izawa-redim4000

Hommage à Izawa Masana 伊沢正名先生

Champignon très dangereux, même par la manipulation (brûlures et desquamation!), mortel si ingéré. Emblème des Samouraïs par sa forme de Kabuto et sa couleur de feu, ce champignon continue cependant de défier et punir les impudents ou les imprudents qui le consomment. Un seul gramme, même macéré dans l'eau de vie, emporte invariablement celle du macho avec d'horribles souffrances !

Au Japon, l' "Atlas de Materia Medica", datant de la période de l'ère bunsei (1818-1829) parle déjà de "poison foudroyant" du Kaen-také, avec description d'un empoisonnement mortel. La dose létale est extrêmement faible, seulement 3 g (poids frais des fructifications). Ont été rapportés 6 cas d'empoisonnement au Japon dont 3 décès.

Les symptômes apparaissent en peu de temps, environ 10 minutes après l'ingestion. Les premiers symptômes sont digestifs, avec des douleurs abdominales, vomissements et diarrhée. Puis des paresthésies, engourdissement des membres, étourdissements, difficultés respiratoires et déficience des globules blancs et plaquettes avec échec de la fonction hématopoïétique, ulcérations dermiques dans tout l'organisme, insuffisance hépatique, insuffisance rénale et insuffisance respiratoire, taux de létalité élevé. Les séquelles des survivants consistent en l'atrophie du cervelet et de la langue, troubles du mouvement ou perte de cheveux et desquamation de la peau.

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img_4文 政年間(1818 - 1829年)の植物図鑑『本草図譜』に「大毒ありといへり」との記述があることから、古くから中毒・死亡事故が発生していたという。致死量はわずか 3g(子実体の生重量)程度ときわめて強力である。日本では6例ほどの中毒事例が報告され、計10名の中毒患者が出ており、そのうち2名は死亡している。

摂取後10分前後の短時間で症状が現れる。初期には消化器系の症状が強く、腹痛・嘔吐・水様性下痢を呈する。その後、めまい・手足のしびれ・呼吸困難・言語障害・白血球と血小板の減少および造血機能障害・全
身の皮膚のびらん・肝不全・腎不全・呼吸器不全といった多彩な症状が現れ、致死率も高い。また回復しても、小脳の萎縮・言語障害・運動障害、あるいは脱毛や皮膚の剥落などの後遺症が残ることがある。
毒成分 [編集]

マイコトキシンとして知られているトリコテセン類(ロリジンE、ベルカリンJ(ムコノマイシンB)、サトラトキシンHおよびそのエステル類の計6種類)が検出されている。これらの成分には皮膚刺激性もあるため、手にとって観察するだけでも皮膚炎を起こす可能性がある。

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Podostroma cornu-damae (Japanese : Kaen-také カエンタケ "fire fungus") is a species of fungus in the Hypocreaceae family.

The fruit bodies of the fungus are highly toxic, and have been responsible for several fatalities in Japan. The fungus contains several trichothecene mycotoxins.

Taxonomy: The species was originally described as Hypocrea cornu-damae by Narcisse Théophile Patouillard in 1895, and later transferred to the genus Podocrea in 1905 by Pier Andrea Saccardo.

In 1994, the Japanese mycologist Tsuguo Hongo placed the species in the genus Podostroma.

Description: The conidiophores (specialised fungal hyphae that produce conidia) are up to 400 μm high and about 2–4 μm wide in the main axial hyphae.
The phialides are arranged in tufts with narrow angles at the top, similar to the branching hyphae found in Trichoderma species.
The conidia are roughly spherical with a truncate base in each spore, pale green in color, and measure 2.5–3.5 μm in diameter.
Their surfaces are almost smooth, but sometimes appearing very faintly roughened with light microscopy.

Toxicity : Several poisonings have been reported in Japan resulting from consumption of the fungus.
In 1999, one of a group of five people from Niigata prefecture died two days after consuming about 1 g of fruit body that had been soaked in saké.
In 2000, an individual from Gunma prefecture died after eating the fried mushroom.
Symptoms associated with consumption in these cases included stomach pains, changes in perception, decrease in the number of leukocytes and thrombocytes,
peeling skin on the face, hair loss, and shrinking of the cerebellum, resulting in speech impediment and problems with voluntary movement.

In another instance, an autopsy revealed multiple organ failure, including acute kidney failure, liver necrosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
In one case of poisoning, the patient suffered from hemophagocytosis, in addition to severe leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia seven days after ingesting the fungus.
Plasmapheresis and administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were used to treat the blood disorders.

The authors suggested that these treatments, in addition to the large volume of administered intravenous fluid (9 litres over a 12-hour period) were responsible for his successful recovery.

The poisoning symptoms are similar to these observed previously with animals that have consumed trichothecene mycotoxins.
Japanese researchers detected the presence of the macrocyclic trichothecenes satratoxin H, satratoxin H 12′,13′-diacetate, satratoxin H 12′-acetate, and satratoxin H 13′-acetate.
When grown in liquid culture the fungus additionally produces roridin E, verrucarin J, and satratoxin H.
With the exception of verrucarin J, a 0.5 g dose of all of these compounds, when injected into the abdomen of mice, will result in their death the following day.

Podostroma cornu-damaetox

  • Ascomycota / Sordariomycetes / Hypocreales / Hypocreaceae
  • Synonymes :
    Hypocrea cornu-damae Pat., Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France 11: 198 (1895) ;
    Podocrea cornu-damae (Pat.) Sacc. & D. Sacc., Sylloge Fungorum 17: 799 (1905)
  • Fructification : Stroma simple et cylindrique à étroitement clavé à flabelliforme, souvent bifide à branchu, ramifié en forme de bois de daim (inde nomen), 7-9 cm de haut, aplani, 0,5-1 cm d'épaisseur, plusieurs stromatas cylindriques issus d'une base commune, rouge orangé à rouge corail brillant; surface glabre, lisse, périthèces non visibles, ostioles sous forme de minuscules points orange.
  • Ecologie : sur le bois mort, peu commun. Tibet, Japon, Chine, Corée.
  • Mortel
  • Références bibliographiques : IH2 p. 279 ; IOH p. 587 ; Kinoko Field Book p. 331 ; Saikawa Y. et al., Tetrahedron, Volume 57, No. 39, 24 Sept. 2001 , pp. 8277-8281
  • Commentaires

Champignon très dangereux, même par la manipulation (brûlures et desquamation!), mortel si ingéré. Emblème des Samouraïs par sa forme de Kabuto et sa couleur de feu, ce champignon continue cependant de défier et punir les impudents ou les imprudents qui le consomment. Un seul gramme, même macéré dans l'eau de vie, emporte invariablement celle du macho avec d'horribles souffrances !

Au Japon, l' "Atlas de Materia Medica", datant de la période de l'ère bunsei (1818-1829) parle déjà de "poison foudroyant" du Kaen-také, avec description d'un empoisonnement mortel. La dose létale est extrêmement faible, seulement 3 g (poids frais des fructifications). Ont été rapportés 6 cas d'empoisonnement au Japon dont 3 sont morts.

Les symptômes apparaissent en peu de temps, environ 10 minutes après l'ingestion. Les premiers symptômes sont digestifs, avec des douleurs abdominales, vomissements et diarrhée. Puis des paresthésies, engourdissement des membres, étourdissements, difficultés respiratoires et déficience des globules blancs et plaquettes avec échec de la fonction hématopoïétique, ulcérations dermiques dans tout l'organisme, insuffisance hépatique, insuffisance rénale et insuffisance respiratoire, taux de létalité élevé. Les séquelles des survivants consistent en l'atrophie du cervelet et de la langue, troubles du mouvement ou perte de cheveux et desquamation de la peau.

Trois mycotoxines ont été identifiées en 2001 par Melle SAIKAWA Y., OKAMOTO H. & INUI Y., de type trichotecene: roridine E, verrucarine J, et satratoxine H.

Toxic principles of a poisonous mushroom Podostroma cornu-damae, Saikawa Y.; Okamoto H.; Inui T.; Makabe M.; Okuno T.; Suda T.; Hashimoto K.1; Nakata M.,
Tetrahedron, Volume 57, Number 39, 24 September 2001 , pp. 8277-8281

From the culture broth of a poisonous mushroom Podostroma cornu-damae, roridin E, verrucarin J, and satratoxin H were isolated. From the fruit bodies of the same fungus, satratoxin H, satratoxin H 12′,13′-diacetate, satratoxin H 12′-acetate, and satratoxin H 13′-acetate were isolated. All these macrocyclic trichothecenes except for verrucarin J had a lethal effect on mice by at least 0.5 mg per capita.

Toxic principles of a poisonous mushroom Podostroma cornu-damae

Yoko Saikawa, Hiroki Okamoto, Taichi Inuia, Midori Makabe, Toshikatsu Okuno, Takashi Suda, Kimiko Hashimoto, Masaya Nakata

Podostroma_cornu_damae_kaenChudoku Kenkyu. 2002 Apr;15(2):177-82.

Successful treatment in a case of podostroma cornu-damae poisoning, a deadly poisonous mushroom

[Article in Japanese]

Abstract

In this case study, a 62-year-old man ate a piece of of Podostroma cornu-damae, poisonous mushroom, by mistake and suffered from severe diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration. The next day he received about 9 liters of solution intravenously over a 12 hour period at his neighboring hospital. The mushroom was identified as Podostroma cornu-damae and he was transported to our hospital on the same day. When he arrived, hypotension due to high capillary permeability accompanied by protein leakage, Leukocytosis, and faint erythema on the body were observed. He was immediately treated by continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) and large quantities of solution were given while monitoring the patient's pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and cardiac output. On the seventh day, Leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia became severe and hemophagocytosis was observed. Plasma exchange (PE) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) were effectively used to treat these hematological disorders. In addition, hypouricemia was also observed, severe depilation occurred, and the skin lesions gradually changed to lameller desquamation. The patient needed over 30 days to recover from leukocytopenia.

CONCLUSION:

It is important to infuse large quantities of solution in the initial treatment of Podostroma cornu-damae poisoning, and blood purification therapy (CHDF and PE) may be highly recommended.
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Korean cases :

Yonsei Med J. 2013 Jan 1; 54(1): 265–268. Published online 2012 Nov 28. 

Two Cases of Mushroom Poisoning by Podostroma Cornu-Damae

 A 64-year old man visited the emergency department with a 10-day history of fever, desquamation on his palms, soles and scalp (Fig. 1). He had a medical history of hypertension and was currently taking medication. Upon admission, his vital signs included a blood pressure of 77/55 mm Hg, heart rate of 114 beats/min, respiratory rate of 18 times/min and a body temperature of 38.2℃. He complained of a fever, chilling sensation, generalized weakness, mild headache, and a sore throat. He did not complaint of chest pain, dyspnea, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Also there were no symptoms of paresthesia or visual disturbance. Physical examination revealed an alert mentality, poor skin turgor, a dried tongue and lips, mild throat injection, desquamation on his palms and soles, and hair loss. Initial laboratory tests showed pancytopenia with a white blood cell (WBC) count of 120/µL [absolute neutrophil count (ANC) 20/µL], hemoglobin (Hb) of 11.2 g/dL, and a platelet count of 5000/µL; elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (135 mm/hr) as well as C-reactive protein (159 mg/L) and ferritin (898 µg/L); and normal blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr) (20.4/0.82 mg/dL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (15/20 IU/L) and total bilirubin (0.8 mg/dL). A simple chest X-ray did not reveal any abnormal findings, and an abdominal-pelvic CT scan, which was performed to evaluate the causes of the pancytopenia and intraabdominal infection focus, did not show any hepatosplenomegaly or infiltrating mass lesion in the liver or spleen, abnormal enlargement of intraabdominal lymph nodes, or any abnormal finding as to the cause of the severe sepsis. Treatment comprising fluid resuscitation with crystalloid and the use of norepinephrine was also performed. Also, intravenous penicillin G (400 million IU, q 4 hrs), clindamycin (600 mg, q 8 hrs), and intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) were administered considering the possibility of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.